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An actual model exists in physical space and acts as patterns and templates to which objects of exact or similar constitution can be compared for duplication and evaluation. Examples are things like the measurement of the world record broad jump, molds for Jello, templates for a style of letterhead or the proper dress for a specific function. A conceptual model is contained in the memory such as a song and how it is to be sung, or language and how it is spoken, or concepts of perfection like God or heaven. In terms of human action and thinking physical models are those such as proper dress, manners and mannerisms or possession of specific objects such as jewellery known as convention. In terms of conceptional models of expectation, they can be the way one thinks as conformance to religious, political, educational, ethical or moral principles.

There are two types of authority for human activity and behavior. When the impetus for human action derives directly from the circumstance of the moment such as changing conditions like a sudden hunger urge or changing weather conditions such as a cancellation of a picnic because of inclement weather, this impetus is termed Intrinsic Authority. The authority here is said to originate from the pre-existent state as the condition of the environment and thus human action is not governed by a preceding objective.

When the impetus is the result of conception alone, such as a whim to buy a new pair of shoes, even though they may be unneeded, and regardless of the conditions of the Intrinsic Authority of present circumstance, the impetus for action is termed Extrinsic Authority. The authority here is said to based upon an objective that is produced from conception, or what is termed Conceptual Authority, as that which is conceptual in origin or existence.

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